到底胖不胖?瞭解你的身體密碼–BMI

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December 10, 2013

檢視自己是否肥胖,有許多指標可以參考,其中最廣為使用也最方便的要算是BMI與腰圍,BMI是Body Mass Index的縮寫,指的是身體質量指數,根據身高體重計算所得,公式如下:

BMI = 體重(公斤) / (身高(公尺))2

世界衛生組織(WHO)依據BMI將體位分為:

1.過瘦:BMI < 18.5

2.標準:18.5 ≦ BMI < 25

3.過重:25 ≦ BMI < 30

4.輕度肥胖: 30 ≦ BMI < 35

5.中度肥胖: 35 ≦ BMI < 40

6.重度肥胖: BMI ≧ 40

亞洲過重與肥胖的人比起西方人有較高的死亡率及心血管疾病風險,因此體位標準較WHO更嚴格一點,衛生福利部國民健康署將國人的體位劃分為:

1.過瘦: BMI < 18.5

2.標準: 18.5 ≦ BMI < 24

3.過重: 24 ≦ BMI < 27

4.輕度肥胖: 27 ≦ BMI < 30

5.中度肥胖: 30 ≦ BMI < 35

6.重度肥胖: BMI ≧ 35

另外,腰圍亦是一個方便測量的指標,在代謝症候群(Metabolic Syndrome)的診斷標準中,男性腰圍 ≧ 90公分(約35.5吋) 或 女性腰圍 ≧ 80公分(約31.5吋)就算是一個危險因子喔!

想知道自己是否肥胖嗎?底下欄位快輸入您的身高體重,計算自己的BMI吧!

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  • […] 此研究共納入18名平均年齡21歲的年輕人,他們平均的身體質量指數BMI為22.6,平均空腹血糖約83mg/dL(正常範圍內),平均總膽固醇約179mg/dL(正常範圍內),平均三酸甘油酯約79mg/dL(正常範圍內),平均高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)約56mg/dL,平均低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)約107mg/dL。受試者被隨機分配到三組,對照組一天坐著的時間約14個小時;激烈運動組一天約坐13個小時且激烈運動騎腳踏車1小時;而低強度活動組一天只坐約8小時並加上4小時走路與2小時站立,三組的睡覺時間皆相同,實驗為期四天,在實驗前後分別測量三組的血糖、胰島素與血脂肪濃度,進行分析。 […]

  • […] 您是每太飽一族嗎?可得注意自己的健康了!“每太飽” 是來自英文Metabolic Syndrome的簡稱Metabo的諧音,指的就是代謝症候群,代謝症候群與胰島素阻抗(inisulin resistance)有關,且罹患糖尿病、高血壓、高血脂、心臟病、中風、甚至癌症的風險都比健康人來得高,肥胖的人更是容易得到代謝症候群,根據國民健康署於2013年間的統計,40歲以上成人約每3個人就有1人是每太飽族,要知道自己是否屬於每太飽一族其實很簡單,看看自己的健檢數據,倘若以下五項條件符合三項以上(包含三項),那麼就是每太飽: […]

  • […] 分析結果顯示,以BMI(身體質量指數,用來判斷是否有肥胖)來看,若以18.5-24.9為參考基準,則BMI介於25-29.9發生腎結石的風險增加21%,而BMI≧35者風險增加到31%;對於每日攝取的熱量,若以每天1800-1999大卡為基準,則每日攝取2200-2499大卡會增加26%的風險,每日攝取≧2500大卡則增加到42%的風險,要注意的是,每日攝取<1800大卡並沒有特別的保護效果;而運動部份,若以不運動族群為基準,每週的規律運動最多可減少到31%的風險,而運動並不需要多激烈,走路、慢跑、園藝活動都可以有幫助。 […]

  • […] 心得:這個研究從分析中發現,碳水化合物的質(升糖指數)甚至比量更重要,對於想要減肥控制體重 或 想好好控制血糖的人而言,千萬不要只顧著計算每餐吃了多少量,還要注意是否挑對好質(低升糖指數)的食物。台灣是個美食天堂,處處都有美食的誘惑,尤其飲料取得更是方便,青春期的生長發育對於未來的健康實在重要,而這段期間又正好深受學校生活、同儕關係影響,自我意識較強烈,爸媽或其他家庭成員平時除了多多注意家中青春期成員的飲食習慣,也建議學校方面多多倡導正確的飲食習慣,少吃甜點少喝含糖飲料,雖然年輕就是本錢,但也不要拿來揮霍,免得賠上未來的健康!看到這裡,少年ㄟ!還在喝飲料嗎? […]

  • […] 在減肥與控制糖尿病的過程中,如何控制食物的質與量是很重要的。量,簡單而言就是食物的總熱量,這可以根據食物內含的醣類、脂肪、蛋白質含量計算而得,現在許多食品都會標示單位重量(如每100公克)所含的熱量,因此只要再乘上食品的重量也可算得總熱量;質,過去大部分人都比較容易忽略,以為只要控制熱量就可以,但其實只控制熱量是不夠的,而隨著食品安全觀念的提昇,食物的質,也慢慢受到重視。今天要談的升糖指數(glycemic index, GI),在肥胖與糖尿病中扮演重要的角色,卻也常被人忽略,想要減掉肥油、讓血糖穩定,必須瞭解升糖指數,這樣才能懂得如何挑選食物的質,否則可能老覺得明明有控制熱量,血糖卻起起伏伏,或者怎麼吃卻老是瘦不下來。 […]

  • […] 此研究納入2008年至2010年間,規則接受健康檢查的四千多位男性,年齡介於19歲到79歲,利用電腦斷層(computed tomography, CT)測量皮下脂肪與內臟脂肪,同時測量腰圍、身體質量指數(BMI)、記錄吸菸與戒菸的狀況、運動狀況、飲酒情形等,進行統計分析。分析結果發現,吸菸者比沒吸菸者較少規律運動,同時有較粗的腰圍、較高比例的代謝症候群,而每天吸11根菸以上者,比起沒吸菸者明顯增加約6.4%的內臟脂肪,而每天吸超過20根菸則比沒有吸菸者明顯增加約12.2%的內臟脂肪;吸菸增加肥油,那麼戒了總沒事吧?!研究人員針對戒菸者也做了分析,發現雖然已經戒了菸,但過去每天吸越多根、吸越多年、越晚戒菸的依舊比沒吸菸者有明顯較多的內臟脂肪,不過當戒菸超過20年,內臟脂肪與沒有吸菸者比起來就沒有顯著的不同了,表示吸菸的影響深遠,越早戒掉越好! […]

  • […] 此一前瞻性研究(prospective study)由英國及美國學者共同參與,從2002年一月至2004年一月,共納入40個國家約9300個葡萄糖耐受不良(血糖異常但還未達糖尿病程度,屬於糖尿病前期pre-diabetes)的受試者,這些受試者本身具有心血管疾病 或者 有發生心血管疾病的風險,研究期間給予受試者生活型態改變的計畫,包括體重控制、減少油脂攝取以及規律運動,再進行長達六年的追蹤,在追蹤期間,記錄發生的心血管疾病事件(包括中風、心肌梗塞、因心血管疾病導致的死亡),同時使用計步器(pedometer)測量受試者於研究剛開始及12個月後的日常活動量,隨後進行分析。 […]

  • […] 平常在判斷體重是否過重或肥胖,最普遍也最方便使用的方式就是計算身體質量指數BMI(body mass index),但是越來越多的研究顯示,想要健康,光看體重是不夠的,因為人的身體組成成份包括水分、脂肪、肌肉、骨頭等,而其中會對身體產生危害,與心血管疾病、糖尿病、高血壓、高血脂、甚至是癌症密切相關的就是『脂肪』!2013年一月份,韓國學者於 臨床內分泌學期刊《Clinical Endocrinology》發表了一研究,發現BMI正常但卻有較高體脂肪率(body fat percentage)者,得到代謝症候群、糖尿病、高血壓、高血脂的風險比BMI正常且體脂率也正常者來得高! […]

  • […] 在2014年1月份的 睡眠醫學雜誌《Sleep Medicine》中,刊登了一有關睡眠與孩童飲食的研究報告,結果指出,睡眠時間不足和睡眠容易中斷的孩童,飲食行為也跟著改變,他們吃進更多的食物,而這會讓他們容易導致肥胖。加拿大的學者針對56位年紀介於5歲-12歲體重正常的孩童,使用actigraphy(姑且叫睡眠分析計)記錄他們晚上的睡眠情況,包括就寢時間、睡著時間、中斷次數、再入眠、睡眠時間長短的情形,然後父母親利用專為孩童設計的問卷來評量孩童們白天時間的心理情緒、飲食行為,之後將飲食行為與睡眠情況做分析,而得到上述的結論。 […]

  • […] 《論語》子曰:『君子不重則不威…』,意指君子若不莊重就沒有威儀。但現實生活中,體重太重可不是件好事,肥胖或腰圍太大的人,容易有糖尿病、高血壓、高血脂、腦中風、癌症、血管病變等疾病,甚至影響『性』福。君子如果真的太『重』,生殖這檔事兒可能也威不起來!2013年12月 人類生殖學期刊《Human Reproduction》線上發表了一研究,結果發現,BMI高以及腰圍大的男性,精液量與精子的數量都比較少。 […]

  • […] “可是果汁是水果打成的,含有維他命、礦物質這些營養,一定比飲料好吧!?” 的確,果汁含有許多營養素,但是含有營養素的這個好處,會抵銷增加肥胖、糖尿病風險的壞處嗎?結論恐怕是令人失望,2009年美國營養學會雜誌《The Journal of the American College of Nutrition》就刊登過相關研究,發現每天喝480mL富含抗氧化營養素的葡萄汁,三個月之後會增加胰島素阻抗性(insulin resistance),而胰島素阻抗性與糖尿病及肥胖密切相關。因此學者認為,喝果汁可能跟喝含糖飲料沒有太大的不同,或者說,果汁應該被視為一種含糖飲料。 […]

  • […] 懷孕過程中,孕婦的體重會隨著孕期增加,但是過與不及都不好,孕婦的健康手冊中有體重增加指引可做參考。美國國家醫學研究機構(IOM. Institute of Medicine) 於2009年修訂了這個孕婦體重增加指引,根據懷孕前不同的BMI,有不同的體重增加標準,新的指引如上圖所示(以懷單包胎為準)。 […]

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  • […] 飲食行為受到許多因素的影響,包括文化、睡眠、內分泌、環境、食物取得性、個人意志等等,但你有想過嗎?跟誰一起吃飯可能也會影響你的飲食選擇喔!美國學者的研究發現,當與體重過重的同伴用餐時,可能會導致吃進較多不利健康的食物,而吃進較少有益健康的食物,研究結果發表在2014年9月份的期刊 食欲 《Appetite》。 […]

  • […] 研究中納入了1999-2002年間五千三百多位、年齡介於20-65歲、本身沒有糖尿病或心血管疾病的健康成人,根據他們的飲食營養內容調查,分析其飲用的含糖飲料(包括含糖汽水、非碳酸含糖飲料、低卡汽水diet soda、100%果汁)與細胞老化之間的關聯性,細胞老化程度則是根據受試者白血球中的端粒(telomere)長度來判斷(註一),在考量年齡、性別、BMI、腰圍、吸菸與否、飲酒與否、活動程度、飲食熱量等相關因素下,分析結果顯示,含糖汽水依舊與細胞的老化有明顯關聯,若把端粒短化長度與受試者的飲用量作推算估計,則每天飲用8盎司(約230公克)含糖汽水將使得細胞提早老化約1.9年。若每天飲用一般常見的20盎司(約570公克)容量,則估計會使得細胞提早老化4.6年(註二)。 […]

  • […] 研究共含括了421對母女,將母親在懷孕24-28週時所做的血糖篩檢結果由低到高分成五個組別,最高的組別屬於血糖異常,會再進行確認是否罹患妊娠糖尿病,另外也記錄孕婦懷孕前BMI、教育情況、家庭收入、懷孕時吸菸情況、生產時年齡;生出的女嬰則記錄其出生體重,之後定期每年檢查,觀察其生長發育情形,在女童達到學齡年紀時(約6-8歲) 測量其身高、體重、腰圍、臀圍、體脂肪,另外也記錄女童的飲食熱量攝取、脂肪攝取量、身體活動量等指標,針對其BMI、腰臀比(腰圍/臀圍,比值越高對身體危害越大)、體脂肪與其他資料進行分析。結果顯示,若母親懷孕時罹患妊娠糖尿病,則女童體重過重或肥胖的危險性是母親血糖最低組別的3.56倍,女童體脂肪偏高的危險性為3.13倍,腰臀比偏高的危險性則為2.8倍,若母親在懷孕前的體重原本就過重,又加上罹患妊娠糖尿病,則上述這些女童肥胖指標異常的風險會更加提高(過重或肥胖風險提高至5.56倍)。值得注意的是,母親若屬於血糖篩檢結果最高的組別,就算確認沒有罹患妊娠糖尿病,女童的肥胖、腰臀比、體脂肪異常的風險一樣是比較高的。 […]

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  • […] 2013年12月權威醫學雜誌 新英格蘭醫學期刊<The New England Journal of Medicine>一篇標題為 “預防肥胖應該多早開始?” 的專文談到,美國許多適逢生育年齡的女性屬於過重或肥胖,這樣的狀況不僅讓她們容易罹患相關合併症(如糖尿病),在懷孕時也容易體重增加過多、罹患妊娠糖尿病,進而影響胚胎的發展與代謝,導致後代可能較容易肥胖的結果,而孕婦本身在生產後也較難回到懷孕前體重,因此下一胎懷孕時她們體重依舊過重或肥胖,而其後代若是女性,未來成年後若肥胖也同樣面臨這個惡性循環。許多研究探討各面向跟肥胖有關的危險因子,希望能藉此從各方面一起著手來有效防治肥胖,文中提到,若從母親懷孕開始看,有四點是研究上發現與未來孩童肥胖有關的因子: […]

  • […] 這個研究找來14位平均年齡約27歲、體重標準的健康成人(其中8位女性),在實驗前確認他們沒有使用咖啡因、酒精、尼古丁或其他藥物,之後住進一研究中心進行為期六天的實驗。實驗中,研究者根據受試者的基礎代謝率量身打造符合個人代謝需求的餐飲熱量,依固定比例分配到每一餐及點心,除了規定的餐飲,受試者除了喝水不能再多吃其他食物。第一天,透過睡眠監測確保受試者沒有睡眠障礙;第二天,維持平日正常的作息,白天有16小時清醒的時間,晚上有8小時的睡眠;第三天是過渡期,只有午睡2小時,之後保持清醒到隔天清晨,模擬一般夜班工作的作息;隨後的第四天與第五天則都是日夜顛倒的作息,清晨進入8小時睡眠狀態,下午醒來到隔天早晨有16小時的清醒時間。整個實驗中環境的燈光、溫度、以及清醒時候的活動都受到控制,目的就是要減少可能干擾熱量消耗的因素,單純探討日夜顛倒對於生理代謝與熱量消耗的影響。過程中根據二氧化碳的製造量、氧氣的消耗量等生理數據來評估身體熱量的消耗,同時也抽血檢驗相關荷爾蒙。 […]